Ruby发送邮件 - SMATP

技术分享 Finley Fu 2019-07-30 0评论 355
SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)即简单邮件传输协议,它是一组用于由源地址到目的地址传送邮件的规则,由它来控制信件的中转方式。Ruby提供了 Net::SMTP 来发送邮件,并提供了两个方法 new 和 start:

  简介 

    new 方法有两个参数:
        server name 默认为 localhost
        port number 默认为 25
    start 方法有以下参数:
        server - SMTP 服务器 IP, 默认为 localhost
        port - 端口号,默认为 25
        domain - 邮件发送者域名,默认为 ENV["HOSTNAME"]
        account - 用户名,默认为 nil
        password - 用户密码,默认为nil
        authtype - 验证类型,默认为 cram_md5
    SMTP 对象实例化方法调用了 sendmail, 参数如下:
        source - 一个字符串或数组或每个迭代器在任一时间中返回的任何东西。
        sender -一个字符串,出现在 email 的表单字段。
        recipients - 一个字符串或字符串数组,表示收件人的地址。

  示例 

  • 简单邮件
require 'net/smtp'
 
message = <<MESSAGE_END
From: Private Person <me@fromdomain.com>
To: A Test User <test@todomain.com>
Subject: SMTP e-mail test
 
This is a test e-mail message.
MESSAGE_END
 
Net::SMTP.start('localhost') do |smtp|
  smtp.send_message message, 'me@fromdomain.com', 
                             'test@todomain.com'
end
  • HTML邮件
require 'net/smtp'
 
message = <<MESSAGE_END
From: Private Person <me@fromdomain.com>
To: A Test User <test@todomain.com>
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-type: text/html
Subject: SMTP e-mail test
 
This is an e-mail message to be sent in HTML format
 
<b>This is HTML message.</b>
<h1>This is headline.</h1>
MESSAGE_END
 
Net::SMTP.start('localhost') do |smtp|
  smtp.send_message message, 'me@fromdomain.com', 
                             'test@todomain.com'
end
  • 带附件邮件
require 'net/smtp'
 
filename = "/tmp/test.txt"
# 读取文件并编码为base64格式
filecontent = File.read(filename)
encodedcontent = [filecontent].pack("m")   # base64
 
marker = "AUNIQUEMARKER"
 
body =<<EOF
This is a test email to send an attachement.
EOF
 
# 定义主要的头部信息
part1 =<<EOF
From: Private Person <me@fromdomain.net>
To: A Test User <test@todmain.com>
Subject: Sending Attachement
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=#{marker}
--#{marker}
EOF
 
# 定义消息动作
part2 =<<EOF
Content-Type: text/plain
Content-Transfer-Encoding:8bit
 
#{body}
--#{marker}
EOF
 
# 定义附件部分
part3 =<<EOF
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; name=\"#{filename}\"
Content-Transfer-Encoding:base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="#{filename}"
 
#{encodedcontent}
--#{marker}--
EOF
 
mailtext = part1 + part2 + part3
 
# 发送邮件
begin 
  Net::SMTP.start('localhost') do |smtp|
     smtp.sendmail(mailtext, 'me@fromdomain.net',
                          ['test@todmain.com'])
  end
rescue Exception => e  
  print "Exception occured: " + e  
end
  • 多个附件
require 'net/smtp'
 
filename = "/tmp/test.txt"
# 读取文件并编码为base64格式
filecontent = File.read(filename)
encodedcontent = [filecontent].pack("m")   # base64

filename2 = "/tmp/test2.txt"
# 读取文件并编码为base64格式
filecontent2 = File.read(filename2)
encodedcontent2 = [filecontent].pack("m")   # base64
 
marker = "AUNIQUEMARKER"
 
body =<<EOF
This is a test email to send an attachement.
EOF
 
# 定义主要的头部信息
part1 =<<EOF
From: Private Person <me@fromdomain.net>
To: A Test User <test@todmain.com>
Subject: Sending Attachement
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=#{marker}
--#{marker}
EOF
 
# 定义消息动作
part2 =<<EOF
Content-Type: text/plain
Content-Transfer-Encoding:8bit
 
#{body}
--#{marker}
EOF
 
# 定义附件部分
part3 =<<EOF
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; name=\"#{filename}\"
Content-Transfer-Encoding:base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="#{filename}"
 
#{encodedcontent}

# 定义附件部分2
part4 =<<EOF
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; name=\"#{filename2}\"
Content-Transfer-Encoding:base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="#{filename2}"
 
#{encodedcontent2}

--#{marker}--
EOF
 
mailtext = part1 + part2 + part3 + part4
 
# 发送邮件
begin 
  Net::SMTP.start('localhost') do |smtp|
     smtp.sendmail(mailtext, 'me@fromdomain.net',
                          ['test@todmain.com'])
  end
rescue Exception => e  
  print "Exception occured: " + e  
end